The key to unlocking the details of the Moore family who enslaved Mrs. Fannie Moore and her family lies in Fannie's description of Mary Anderson and her mother Harriet. In 1866, Mary Anderson, daughter of Captain David Anderson and Harriet Brockman, married Thomas John Moore (known as Jim). Fannie remembered five of their children Andrew born c1867, Thomas born c1869, Annie Mary (Nan) born c1871, Harriet born c1877, and Henrietta Sue (Nettie Sue) born c1879.
Thomas John (Jim) Moore's father, Dr Andrew Barry Moore died c1848. Nancy Miller Montgomery his widow was recorded in 1850 living in Spartanburg County, South Carolina with her sons Andrew (1838-1862) and Thomas and daughter Ann. She was a wealthy woman, her Real Estate was valued at $30,000. She is recorded on page 13 of the Slave Schedule for Spartanburg County as the owner of 28 enslaved people. However, page 14 records her as the owner of another 55 human beings giving a total of 83 enslaved people. Unfortunately, the people she enslaved are recorded by age and not by family groups, as is the case with some Slave Schedule returns.
In 1860, Nancy Moore was again recorded in Spartanburg County, South Carolina (Southern Division) with her sons Andrew and Thomas. The fourth member of her household was the overseer, Thomas W Hill, born c1825 in South Carolina, that Mrs. Fannie Moore described. (His name is transcribed as Thomas W Hide in the familysearch record). The value of Nancy's Real Estate was recorded as $9,000 and her Personal Estate (incl. the monetary value of her enslaved people) $27,665. Her son Andrew had come into his inheritance and had Real Estate to the value of $12,000 and personal Estate of $29,000. In the 1860 Slave Schedule, Nancy Moore was recorded as the owner of 24 enslaved people. Her son Andrew (A C Moore) was recorded as the owner of 26 enslaved people.
In Dec. 1860 Nancy Miller Montgomery Moore married Samuel Nesbit Evins (1797-1868). She died in 1862 and is buried at Nazareth Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Moore, Spartanburg County, South Carolina.
Jim (Thomas John) Moore died in 1919. He had been resident in Walnut Grove, Spartanburg County, South Carolina in 1910. Jim Moore's grandfather Charles, 'the school teacher', left Ulster about 1750 and had settled in Walnut Grove by 1767. The Moore family were slaveholders in what became known as Spartanburg County for almost 200 years. Steven and Rachel Moore and their daughter Mrs. Fannie Moore were only three of the persons enslaved by the family and Steven and Rachel continued to work for Jim Moore up until their deaths.
(accessed 12 July 2021)
Fannie Moore 1937 northcarolinaslavenarratives.wordpress.com/north-carolina-slave-narratives-2/moore-fannie/
Thomas Moore & Mary Anderson 1870 US Federal Census
Dr Andrew Barry Moore (1771-1848) (www.findagrave.com/memorial/78000753/andrew-barry-moore)
Nancy Moore 1850 US Federal Census (www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8Q2-B5L)
Nancy Moore 1850 US Slave Schedule (www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:HRW8-346Z)
Nancy Moore 1860 US Federal Census (www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MZTX-MVY)
Nancy Moore 1860 Slave Schedule (www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:WKTJ-1FN2)
Andrew Moore (A C Moore) 1860 Slave Schedule (www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:WKTJ-1F6Z)
Nancy Miller Montgomery Moore Evins (www.findagrave.com/memorial/152095688/nancy-miller-evins)
Nazareth Presbyterian Church (fpcspartanburg.org/devotionals/nazareth)
Walnut Grove Plantation (www.spartanburghistory.org/sites/walnut-grove)
Mrs Fannie Moore was born in 1849 in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. She was the daughter of Steven and Rachel Moore. Her paternal grandmother was born in Africa. Steven was a blacksmith and Rachel worked in the fields during the day and pieced quilts at night. Steven taught himself to read by stealing a book and taking it out to the fields to learn in secret. Rachel gave birth to twelve children in spite of working in the fields so she must have been a very strong woman.
Mrs Moore's recollection of her life was recorded in 1937 in Asheville, North Carolina by Marjorie Jones. Her memory was clear as she recalled many names and events in her life as an enslaved person. Her account is significant also because it shows how deeply entwined the lives of enslavers and enslaved people were. For example when Hill, the overseer, was displeased with Cheney's behaviour he told 'old granny Moore' and she whipped Cheney. Cheney had two children by Hill, the overseer. Fannie's mother Rachel was also whipped by 'granny Moore'. Fannie described 'old granny Moore' as a 'rip jack'.
In 1880, Fannie is recorded as living with her father and mother in Reidsville, Spartanburg. Her age is recorded as 18 which gives her a birth year of 1862. She and her sister Joanna are recorded as farm labourers. Also living in the household are Steven's granddaughters, Josephine, Carrie and Tosie and grandson Centennial. Two men are also in the household, Berry Miller and Laurence Barry. In 1870, there was ten children and young people recorded in Steven's household. By 1900, Steven and Rachel are getting on in years and living in Fair Forest Township, Spartanburg with their grandchildren Johnson and Ella Alexander aged 17 and 16. It is possible that these Alexander young people are the children of Mrs Fannie Moore. A 1967 Death Certificate for Josie Alexander (born in Spartanburg County, SC 1886) identifies her mother as Fannie Moore.
Sadly, six of Steven and Rachel's twelve children have died by this time. Steven died some time between 1900-1910, Rachel is recorded as a widow living next door to her son Benjamin in Walnut Grove, Spartanburg County in 1910.
By 1937, both Steven and Rachel have died and Fannie no-longer knew where her siblings were living. But researching death records we were able to find two of them, Benjamin and Jonas. Steven and Rachel's son Benjamin died in 1945, in Walnut Grove Township, Spartanburg County. Another son Jonas (dec. wife Luann) died in 1937 in Gastonia, Gaston, North Carolina.
Mrs Fannie Moore left us so much information that it is continued at www.enslavement-to-citizenship.com/irish-descendant-slaveholders/moore-spartanburg-county-south-carolina
Sources: (accessed 12 July 2021)
Fannie Moore 1937 northcarolinaslavenarratives.wordpress.com/north-carolina-slave-narratives-2/moore-fannie/
Fannie Moore & her family 1880 www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M6SB-W8D
Steven Moore & family 1870 www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8RY-C4T
Steven Moore 1900 www.familysearch.org/search/ark:/61903/1:1:M3TL-8XM
Benjamin Moore, Death Certificate 1945 (wife's name Sally) www.familysearch.org/search/ark:/61903/1:1:FPM2-SVK
Jonas Moor, Death Cert. 1937 www.familysearch.org/search/ark:/61903/1:1:H4KL-DVN2
Josie Alexander Death Certificate 1967 www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-C9P2-1W17-2
Rachel Moore 1910 www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M5DV-QS9
Valley Street where Mrs Moore was interviewed www.ashevillenc.gov/news/neighborhood-profile-east-end-valley-street/
I would like to give a warm welcome today to Steve Harper who is the contributor of the following research. Steve is a retired patent attorney living in Paoli, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. He has been researching his family's history for about 10 years. Recently, he has been focusing his attention on the numerous branches of his mother's family who were enslavers in southern states such as North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
I am a descendant of Daniel Malone, who was born in Killucan, Westmeath, Ireland (about 50 miles northwest of Dublin) about 1642 and immigrated to the American colonies at an unknown date.
Although I have found records related to the ownership of enslaved people for several of the later Malones who descended from Daniel, this blog will focus on the information I have uncovered for Thompson Malone (my third great grandfather). Thompson was born in 1802 and died May 29, 1862 in Greene County, Georgia, during the Civil War. Moreover, his estate documents (accessible through ancestry.com) contain a multitude of references to enslaved people by first name. The ages of certain individuals are also documented as well as certain family relationships. Thompson was the only slaveholder having the last name Malone living in Greene County who is listed in the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules.
Sources: (all sources accessed 2 Feb. 2021).
1850 U.S. Federal Census (Slave Schedule) Greene County, Georgia (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:HR76-632M)
1860 U.S. Federal Census (Slave Schedule) Greene County, Georgia
This means that it is possible, with a reasonable degree of confidence, to match up those enslaved persons with the records of African Americans living in or near Greene County, Georgia soon after the Civil War (for example, as documented in the 1870 federal census).
According to the 1860 slave schedule, Thompson owned 27 enslaved people. His estate documents mention the following people by name:
Abram (age 20)
Martha (age 35) and her children Joe and William
Cairo (age 50)
Humphrey (age 18)
Sally (age 50; a “Sallie” is also mentioned)
Bera (girl, age 14; spelling of name is not clear)
Amanda (age 20)
Chancy (or Chaney)(age 60)
Gus (age unclear, possibly 11 or 15)
Tilda (age 30) and her child Cornelius
Reta (age 27)
Jule (woman, age 24) and her child Edward
Celia (age 17)
Hannah (age 18)
Frone (spelling not clear)
Mills (spelling not clear)
While more research still needs to be done, I have been able to find post-Civil War records for some of these individuals. A short summary of certain of this information follows.
The 1870 federal census records Martha Malone, as a Black woman, age 50 (i.e., born about 1820 in Georgia), living in Militia District 146, Greene County, Georgia. Other members of the household are Jacob Malone (25), Peter (20), Joseph (10), Cornelius (7) and William (5). This family is likely the same family listed in the estate documents of Thompson above.
Martha Malone is also documented in the 1880 federal census. She is described as Black, widowed, born in Georgia, age 60, living in District 323, Twiggs, Georgia in the Denson household. She is listed as the mother of Judge Denson (40).
1870 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MC37-W7D)
1880 U. S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8P3-MYK)
William Malone also appears in the 1900 census and the 1910 census for Georgia, with ages consistent with being born in the early 1860s (like the William mentioned above). In the 1900 census William Malone is recorded as born in Georgia (like both his parents) and is described as a married man and a prisoner in Newborn, Newton County, Georgia. In 1910, he is recorded as aged 49 (born about 1861) and is described as a widowed lodger and laborer living in Militia District 466, Monroe County, Georgia.
1900 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M3J5-MPT)
1910 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:ML2K-NWL)
The 1870 federal census recorded Celia Malone, age 24 (born ca. 1846), as a Black farm laborer, born in Georgia, living in Militia District 148, Greene County, Georgia. This almost certainly is the Celia referenced in Thompson Malone’s estate documents. Moreover, the census records show that Celia’s household included a Samuel Malone, age 14, and a Jane Malone, age 47. Individuals with these first names are among those mentioned in the estate documents of Thompson Malone.
1870 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MC3Q-HNP)
A search for records related to “Mose” found several sources that refer to Moses Malone. For example, Moses Malone is recorded in both the 1870 federal census (age 40, born in Georgia) and 1880 federal census (age 50), living in Militia District 148, Greene County, Georgia. Both parents were also born in Georgia. He is described as Black and a farmer (1870) or laborer (1880). The name Moses Malone also appears on a May 25, 1866, Greene County, Georgia marriage record as the spouse of Mary Robinson. Further, 1871-1875 property tax registers show Moses Malone employed in District 18 of Greene County by Philip Robinson (or Robertson, in some records).
1870 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MC3Q-BHW)
The 1870 federal census records Milley (or Milly) Malone, age 30, who was born in Georgia, living in Militia District 148 of Greene County, Georgia. She is described as a Black farm laborer. Other members of her household include Green Malone, age 9, who may be the Greene mentioned in Thompson Malone’s estate documents. However, I have identified other men named Green Malone living in Georgia after the Civil War with much earlier birth dates. For example, the 1880 federal census reported a Green Malone, age 39 (born ca. 1841), who was a Black farmer living in Whites, Jones County, Georgia. Both he and his parents were born in Georgia. He is in the same household as Harriet Malone, who is possibly the Harriet referenced in Thompson Malone’s estate documents.
1870 U.S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MC3Q-BC2)
Cain Malone, age 50, is listed in the 1870 federal census as a Black blacksmith living in Militia District 141, Greene County. He was in the same household as Sophronia, age 35, who seems to be the Frone or Phromia also mentioned in Thompson Malone’s estate documents. Additionally, Cain Malone (“colored”) registered to vote in Greene County on July 6, 1867.
1870 U. S. Federal Census (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MC33-BY1)
I would be glad to share my additional research notes on this subject with anyone who has an interest. Steve
Not every Irish man and woman who found their way to North America before 1862 became a slaveholder. However a number of their children did. This blog will be about those people, the American-born children of Irish parents who adopted the slaveholding practises of their neighbours. Discussions with other researchers who have information about Irish descendant slaveholders has identified the need for a central space for this research. If you would like to contribute a short blog containing information about African American people enslaved by Irish descendant slaveholders, please use the contact page on this website.
John McDonagh 1779-1850 was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1779 the son of Irish parents John and Elizabeth McDonagh. In 1800, he was sent to Liverpool. England to acquire goods for the Louisiana trade and after a second successful trip he decided to make his home in New Orleans. By the time of his death in 1850, his net worth was calculated at almost 2 million US dollars. He never married and left his estate almost entirely in trust for the establishment of schools for poor white and free Black children. The New Orleans Public School system had been established in 1841 and in spite of the Will being contested, the New Orleans Public School system received $704,440 in 1858.
John McDonagh's wealth was amassed predominantly through slaveholding.
In the 1830 US Federal Census there are 87 enslaved people recorded as his property, in 1840, 192 enslaved people and in 1850, 58 enslaved people. In 1822, John McDonagh devised an elaborate manumission scheme for the people he had enslaved. Under this scheme it usually took about 15 years for enslaved people to gain their freedom. He was also an active member of the American Colonization Society which hired ships for enslaved people to go to Liberia.
US Federal Census 1830
US Federal Census 1840
US Federal Census 1850
Robinson, Morgan, The African Colonization Society, The Whitehouse Historical Association (June 22 2020) (www.whitehousehistory.org/the-american-colonization-society) (accessed 28 Jan. 2021).
John McDonagh wrote his Will in 1838 and in it he identified the following enslaved people:
Anna/Hannah, and her unnamed children
Hagar and her unnamed children
Dolly and her unnamed children
Sophie and her unnamed children
Henry, occupation carpenter
William, occupation carpenter
George, occupation carpenter
Jane/Jenny and her unnamed children
Phillip, his wife Jenny, and their unnamed children
In a letter written 30 May 1842, to Rev. W McClain, John McDonagh identified the following people bound for Liberia on the ship Mariposa;
James, an African by birth, Henrietta , his wife, McGeorge, his son, Ellie, his son, Molly daughter of Henrietta
Charity daughter of Molly
James Gray, Milly or Amelia, his wife, Elizabeth his daughter, Louis their son
Richard, a minister of the gospel aged about 50 years.
Cuffy, Maria, his wife, Charles, their son, Lucy their daughter, Maria their daughter
Peter, Diana his wife, Thomas their son
Judy, Galloway, his son
Juda daughter of Juda[y] ,
Jenny aged 35 years, John his son, Orleans his son, Alfred his son
Simon, Mary wife of Simon, Winny their child a girl, Benjamin their son
Elisa their daughter
Phillis, George Ellis her son,
Joshua, Charles Mason his brother (brother of Joshua)
Cornelius, Susan sister of Cornelius
Augustine Lombart(d), Julia wife of Augustine Lombard, Jonathan their son
Dabney aged 19 years honest and faithful man.
Jack, Becky sister of Jack, Matilda sister of Jack, Randal a brother of Jack
Nancy, Dime daughter of Nancy
Katy, Henry son of Katy, Isaac son of Katy
Elisa, John son of Elisa
Jenny (called little jenny), Letty a daughter of Jenny, Daniel a son of Jenny
Bridget, Bridget her daughter
Sally, Samuel his son
Rhina, Andrew age 13 son of Rhina, Caroline daughter of Rhina , Robert carter , son of Rhina, Baltamore son of Rhina, Catherine a daughter of Rhina
Precilla, Moses his son, William his son .
Note: McDonagh appears to use his/her interchangeably. He also makes subtle distinctions, naming some children as the son or daughter of one member of a couple and other children as the children of both members of the couple. As a result it is difficult at times to clearly identify family groups. Further information is available in the original letter.
Letter written 30 May 1842 by McDonagh to Rev. W McClain, African Colonization Society. Lafayette College's Special Collections and Digital Scholarship Services
(exhibits.lafayette.edu/mcdonogh/items/show/2484) (accessed 28 Jan. 2021).
Lafayette College's Special Collections and Digital Scholarship Services