Adeline Cabean, born about 1844 in Fairfield County, South Carolina was the daughter of Charity, an enslaved woman and Richard Cabean (b. 1813), an Irish overseer. Adeline married John Clowney Brown, born 1855, in the 1870s, and in 1880 was recorded in the U.S. Federal Census as the mother of four children: Jane L Brown born 1872, Willie born 1876, Robert born 1877 and John born 1879.
In 1900, Adeline & John Brown were still living in Blackstock Town which straddles Fairfield County and Chester County. Their children were recorded as Louisa C born 1873, Lee born 1880, a son Merriam born 1881, George born 1885, Annie born 1888, Sallie B born 1893, Wylie born 1895 and a daughter Willie F born 1896. Adeline is recorded as the mother of 14 children of whom only eight are living.
Next door to them in 1900, William Brown (1867), his wife Manda, daughters Hattie & Fannie M and sons Anner, Johnnie & Lawrence were living. Other near neighbours included the Young, Lewis, Strong, Reed, Mobley and Dunbar (who were Irish-born) families.
By 1910, John and Adeline had only one child living at home, their son Wylie and a woman named Louisa Coleman identified as John's stepdaughter. Louisa Coleman appears to be the same woman as Louisa C born 1873 recorded as their daughter in 1900. The families of Henry L Brown and Eyerabim Brown, living nearby would need to be researched to see if they are the children of John and Adeline.
In 1920, John and Adeline's daughter Willie had returned to live at home with their son?? Hayman recorded as born in 1907. In this Census, Adeline's father's place of birth is finally recorded as Ireland. Adeline ia also recorded as eleven years older than her husband which ties in with his statement to Dixon of the Federal Writers Project.
In 1930, John and Adeline were living together in the same place but Adeline's name is recorded as Emmaline.
The Census of 1940 recorded John C Brown as a widower living with his daughter Annie and his son-in-law Charley Coleman (b. 1885) who was also the informant at John's death in 1946. The families of Charlie, Jim and Blake Curbeam are their nearest neighbours. This is another research avenue as when Wylie Brown died in 1938, his mother Adeline was recorded not as Adeline Cabean but Adline Curbeans.
Adeline Cabean and her mother Charity were formerly enslaved by the family of Robert Cheyne Clowney (1838-1885) who was born in Co. Down, Ireland and died in Fairfield County. Robert was the son of John Clowney (1791-1848).
Federal Writers Project John C Brown www.loc.gov/resource/mesn.141/?sp=130
1850 U.S. Federal Census Richard Cabean www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8QN-CBV
1870 U.S. Federal Census Robert Clowney www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8RJ-DHG
1880 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M6S8-6RQ
1900 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M3RR-XMP
1910 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XMB9-NT8
1920 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M6Z6-6DR
1930 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:SPC4-N7T
1940 U.S. Federal Census www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K4DS-TVN
Death Certificate 1946 John Clowney Brown www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FPMX-3JP
Death Certificate 1938 Wylie Brown www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:N9JH-2G8
I would like to give a warm welcome today to our newest contributor Margaret Seidler. Margaret is a native of Charleston, South Carolina. She is retired now after a career in leadership development and organization management.
After a lifetime of believing that my family was not involved in slavery, a deeper investigation of my family tree led to the discovery that I am a descendant of John Gordon Torrans of County Derry, Ireland (1702-1780), a partner in the shipping and shipping agent firm of Torrans, Greg and Poaug on Bay Street.
Torrans, Greg and Pouag brought many Ulster people to the Carolinas, then later expanded their operation to include the transportation of enslaved Africans into Charleston.
In 1791, Torrans' daughter Maria Margaret (1772-1827) married William Payne (dec. 1834). Payne was a son of servants to the Butler family from Cloughrenan, County Carlow, Ireland, He arrived in Charleston about 1786, accompanying their son, Edward Butler, the nephew of Major Pierce Butler. At first, Payne worked as a clerk for Pierce Butler but by 1803 he had started a brokerage business. He was later joined by his sons John William and Joshua. William Payne and Sons, became the largest auction house in Charleston engaged in the sale of thousands of enslaved people in the domestic slave trade. My research to date has focused on uncovering these transactions in historical newspaper advertisements.
The attached pdf. includes my research on William Payne & Sons to date and also my email address if you would like to contact me.
Margaret Seidler: Domestic Slave Trading in Charleston 1800-1832 (13 Oct. 2020)
If you would like to learn more about Margaret's research, the above talk was one she gave to local historians and tour guides in Charleston, Oct 2020.
William Hill was born in 1805 in Co. Antrim to a Presbyterian family who supported the United Irishmen. He arrived in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822. By 1824 he had established himself as a storekeeper. He married Anna Hamilton Donald, the daughter of Major John Donald of Donaldsville. They went on to have six sons and four daughters. He served in the Seminole War in Florida in Captain Thomas Parker's company.
By 1850 he is recorded as a farmer with Real Estate to the value of $2,500 residing in Saluda, Abbeville County. At this time he owned four enslaved people: two women aged 35 and 21, and two boys aged 15 and 12. He is not the only William Hill residing in Abbeville County in 1850 but he is the only one recorded as Irish-born at that time.
In 1852, he was elected to the local court as Court Ordinary. He served in this role until 1868, at which time his position was retitled as Judge of Probate. Throughout his life Hill maintained correspondence with his brother David Hill and three letters can be found in the Irish Emigration Database which refer to his slaveholding activities. The Irish Emigration Database was established in 1988 and contains items from 1700-1950, Three-quarters of the collection are from the period 1820-1920 with a concentration of material from the Province of Ulster.
In a letter dated 24 Jan 1855, to his brother David, William Hill acknowledges ownership of seven human beings, 'three young Negro fellows' unnamed and 'two Negro women' one of whom is only sixteen years of age but already the mother of two children, also unnamed. It is important to note that this young girl was only thirteen years of age when she had her first child.
William Hill goes on to boast that his 'Negro property' is worth $6,000. It is clear from the letter that Hill understands that his brother David considers slavery to be morally wrong but he deflects criticism by reconstituting it as a difference of opinion, a defence in common use by slaveholders of the time. He continues by questioning the belief that slavery and Christianity are inconsistent and does not appreciate the attempts of David McAurtry to make him reconsider his position as a slaveholder.
In 1860, William Hill is recorded as Court Ordinary (Judge) of Abbeville County with Real Estate valued at $8,000 and Personal Estate of $12,000. Personal Estate includes the market value of the human beings he enslaved. The 1860 Slave Schedule records his ownership of 14 enslaved people, the oldest a 62 year old woman and the youngest a newborn baby boy.
William Hill's letter dated 2 Sept. 1865, bemoans his loss of wealth ($30,000) following Emancipation, which includes the loss of all but three of the people he enslaved.
In spite of his career as a slaveholder, William Hill was lauded as a person of 'character and integrity' at the time of his death in 1886.
I have been unable to find documents which name the people enslaved by William Hill to date and would welcome any information about them.
Letters from William Hill, Abbeville, South Carolina to his brother, David Hill, Co. Antrim, Ireland, Irish Emigration Database (www.dippam.ac.uk/ied) (accessed 14Jan. 2021).
1850 U.S. Federal Census
1850 Slave Schedule
1860 U.S. Federal Census
1860 Slave Schedule
(familysearch.org) (accessed 12 Jan 2021).
Abbeville Messenger 19 Jan. 1886
Mitchell, Arthur, South Carolina Irish, Charleston (2011), p. 64.
Martine Brennan (Curator)
Enslavement to citizenship: African Americans in Irish Slaveholder records by Martine Brennan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.